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Bovine Metabolome Database



Showing metabocard for L-Carnitine (BMDB00062)

Legend: metabolite field enzyme field

Version 1.0
Creation Date 2005-11-16 15:48:42
Update Date 2009-05-28 10:25:23
Accession Number BMDB00062
Common Name L-Carnitine
Description Carnitine is not an essential amino acid; it can be synthesized in the body. However, it is so important in providing energy to muscles including the heart-that some researchers are now recommending carnitine supplements in the diet, particularly for people who do not consume much red meat, the main food source for carnitine. Carnitine has been described as a vitamin, an amino acid, or a metabimin, i.e., an essential metabolite. Like the B vitamins, carnitine contains nitrogen and is very soluble in water, and to some researchers carnitine is a vitamin (Liebovitz 1984). It was found that an animal (yellow mealworm) could not grow without carnitine in its diet. However, as it turned out, almost all other animals, including humans, do make their own carnitine; thus, it is no longer considered a vitamin. Nevertheless, in certain circumstances-such as deficiencies of methionine, lysine or vitamin C or kidney dialysis--carnitine shortages develop. Under these conditions, carnitine must be absorbed from food, and for this reason it is sometimes referred to as a "metabimin" or a conditionally essential metabolite. Like the other amino acids used or manufactured by the body, carnitine is an amine. But like choline, which is sometimes considered to be a B vitamin, carnitine is also an alcohol (specifically, a trimethylated carboxy-alcohol). Thus, carnitine is an unusual amino acid and has different functions than most other amino acids, which are most usually employed by the body in the construction of protein. Carnitine is an essential factor in fatty acid metabolism in mammals. It's most important known metabolic function is to transport fat into the mitochondria of muscle cells, including those in the heart, for oxidation. This is how the heart gets most of its energy. In humans, about 25% of carnitine is synthesized in the liver, kidney and brain from the amino acids lysine and methionine. Most of the carnitine in the body comes from dietary sources such as red meat and dairy products. Inborn errors of carnitine metabolism can lead to brain deterioration like that of Reye's syndrome, gradually worsening muscle weakness, Duchenne-like muscular dystrophy and extreme muscle weakness with fat accumulation in muscles. Borurn et al. (1979) describe carnitine as an essential nutrient for pre-term babies, certain types (non-ketotic) of hypoglycemics, kidney dialysis patients, cirrhosis, and in kwashiorkor, type IV hyperlipidemia, heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy), and propionic or organic aciduria (acid urine resulting from genetic or other anomalies). In all these conditions and the inborn errors of carnitine metabolism, carnitine is essential to life and carnitine supplements are valuable. carnitine therapy may also be useful in a wide variety of clinical conditions. carnitine supplementation has improved some patients who have angina secondary to coronary artery disease. It may be worth a trial in any form of hyperlipidemia or muscle weakness. carnitine supplements may be useful in many forms of toxic or metabolic liver disease and in cases of heart muscle disease. Hearts undergoing severe arrhythmia quickly deplete their stores of carnitine. Athletes, particularly in Europe, have used carnitine supplements for improved endurance. carnitine may improve muscle building by improving fat utilization and may even be useful in treating obesity. carnitine joins a long list of nutrients which may be of value in treating pregnant women, hypothyroid individuals, and male infertility due to low motility of sperm. Even the Physician's Desk Reference gives indication for carnitine supplements as "improving the tolerance of ischemic heart disease, myocardial insufficiencies, and type IV hyperlipoproteinemia. carnitine deficiency is noted in abnormal liver function, renal dialysis patients, and severe to moderate muscular weakness with associated anorexia." (http://www.dcnutrition.com)
Synonyms
  1. (-)-(R)-3-Hydroxy-4-(trimethylammonio)butyrate
  2. (-)-carnitine
  3. (R)-(3-Carboxy-2-hydroxypropyl)trimethylammonium hydroxide
  4. (r)-carnitine
  5. (s)-carnitine
  6. 1-carnitine
  7. 3-carboxy-2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-1-propanaminium
  8. Bicarnesine
  9. Carnilean
  10. Carnitene
  11. Carnitine
  12. Carnitor
  13. D-carnitine
  14. delta-carnitine
  15. DL-carnitine
  16. Gamma-trimethyl-ammonium-beta-hydroxybutirate
  17. Gamma-trimethyl-beta-hydroxybutyrobetaine
  18. Gamma-trimethyl-hydroxybutyrobetaine
  19. Karnitin
  20. L-(-)-carnitine
  21. L-carnitine
  22. L-gamma-trimethyl-beta-hydroxybutyrobetaine
  23. Levocarnitina
  24. Levocarnitine
  25. Levocarnitinum
  26. R-(-)-3-hydroxy-4-trimethylaminobutyrate
  27. Vitamin BT
  28. Carniking
  29. Carniking 50
  30. Carnipass
  31. Carnipass 20
  32. 3-hydroxy-4-trimethylammoniobutanoate
  33. 3-hydroxy-4-trimethylammoniobutanoic acid
Chemical IUPAC Name (3R)-3-hydroxy-4-trimethylammonio-butanoate
Chemical Formula C7H15NO3
Chemical Structure Structure
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom
  • Organic
Super Class
  • Amino acids and Amino Acid conjugates
Class
  • Quaternary Amines; Amino Acids
Sub Class
  • Short chain acyl carnitines
Family
  • Mammalian_Metabolite
Species
  • cation; anion; secondary alcohol; quaternary ammonium salt; carboxylic acid salt
Biofunction
  • Essential amino acid; Component of Alanine and aspartate metabolism; Component of Fatty acid metabolism
Application
Source
  • Endogenous
Average Molecular Weight 161.199
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 161.105194
Isomeric SMILES C[N+](C)(C)C[C@@H](O)CC([O-])=O
Canonical SMILES C[N+](C)(C)CC(O)CC([O-])=O
KEGG Compound ID C00318 Link Image
BioCyc ID CARNITINE Link Image
BiGG ID 34600 Link Image
Wikipedia Link L-Carnitine Link Image
METLIN ID 52 Link Image
PubChem Compound 2724480 Link Image
PubChem Substance 8787949 Link Image
ChEBI ID 16347 Link Image
CAS Registry Number 541-15-1
InChI Identifier InChI=1/C7H15NO3/c1-8(2,3)5-6(9)4-7(10)11/h6,9H,4-5H2,1-3H3/t6-/m0/s1
Synthesis Reference Bols, Mikael; Lundt, Inge; Pedersen, Christian. Simple synthesis of (R)-carnitine from D-galactono-1,4-lactone. Tetrahedron (1992), 48(2), 319-24.
Melting Point (Experimental) 197 oC
Experimental Water Solubility Not Available Source: PhysProp
Predicted Water Solubility 1000 mg/mL at 25 oC [MEYLAN,WM et al. (1996)]; 5.33 mg/mL [Predicted by ALOGPS] Calculated using ALOGPS
Physiological Charge 0
State Solid
Experimental LogP/Hydrophobicity Not Available Source: PhysProp
Predicted LogP/Hydrophobicity -2.90 [Predicted by ALOGPS]; -5.48 [MEYLAN,WM & HOWARD,PH (1995)] Calculated using ALOGPS
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
MOL File Show
SDF File Show
PDB File Show
2D Structure
3D Structure
Experimental PDB ID 1NDF Link Image
Experimental PDB File Show
Experimental PDB Structure
Experimental 1H NMR Spectrum Download Spectrum
Download FID (Varian)
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Experimental 13C NMR Spectrum Download Spectrum
Download FID (Bruker)
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Experimental 13C HSQC Spectrum Download Spectrum
Download FID (Bruker)
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Predicted 1H NMR Spectrum Show Image
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Predicted 13C NMR Spectrum Show Image
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Mass Spectrum
Low Energy
Download File
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Medium Energy
Download File
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High Energy
Download File
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Simplified TOCSY Spectrum Show Image
Show Peaklist
BMRB Spectrum Show Image
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Cellular Location
  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria
  • endoplasmic reticulum
  • Extracellular
  • peroxisome
Biofluid Location
  • Breast_Milk
Tissue Location
Tissue References
Adipose Tissue
Bladder
Brain
Erythrocyte
Fibroblasts
Intestine
Kidney
Liver
Lung
Muscle
Myocardium
Nerve Cells
Neuron
Platelet
Skeletal Muscle
Sperm
Testes
Concentrations (Normal)
Biofluid Breast_Milk
Value 346 uM
Age N/A
Sex N/A
Condition Normal
Comments Raw. skim.
References
Biofluid Breast_Milk
Value 63 +/- 4 uM
Age N/A
Sex N/A
Condition Normal
Comments Quantified by DFI-MS in 2% milk
References
Biofluid Breast_Milk
Value 61 +/- 2 uM
Age N/A
Sex N/A
Condition Normal
Comments Quantified by DFI-MS in 1% milk
References
Biofluid Breast_Milk
Value 59 +/- 3 uM
Age N/A
Sex N/A
Condition Normal
Comments Quantified by DFI-MS in skim milk
References
Biofluid Breast_Milk
Value 62 +/- 2 uM
Age N/A
Sex N/A
Condition Normal
Comments Quantified by DFI-MS in 3.25% milk
References
Biofluid Breast_Milk
Value NA NA
Age NA
Sex NA
Condition Normal
Comments Detected but not quantified in conventional whole milk
References
Concentrations (Abnormal) Not Available
Pathway Names
  • Lysine Degradation
  • Oxidation of Branched Fatty Acids
  • Oxidation of Very Long Chain Fatty Acids
HMDB Pathways
Name Lysine Degradation
Image Show Link Image
Name Oxidation of Branched Fatty Acids
Image Show Link Image
Name Oxidation of Very Long Chain Fatty Acids
Image Show Link Image
KEGG Pathways
Name Lysine Degradation
Image Show Link Image
SimCell Pathways
Name Lysine Degradation
Image Show Link Image
Graph Show Link Image
SBML Download (XML) Link Image
General References
  1. Wikipedia Link Image
Metabolic Enzymes
  1. Peroxisomal carnitine O-octanoyltransferase
  2. Carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 1, muscle isoform
  3. Carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 2, mitochondrial
  4. Solute carrier family 22 member 16
Enzyme 1 [top]
Enzyme 1 ID 244
Enzyme 1 Name Peroxisomal carnitine O-octanoyltransferase
Enzyme 1 Synonyms
  1. COT
Enzyme 1 Gene Name CROT
Enzyme 1 Protein Sequence >Peroxisomal carnitine O-octanoyltransferase
MENQLAKSTEERTFQYQDSLPSLPVPSLEESLKKYLESVKPFANEEEYKNTEAIVWKFQN
GIGEKLQQKLLQRAKGRRNWLEEWWLNVAYLDVRIPSQLNVNFGGPASHIEHYWPPKEGT
QLERGSISLWHNLNYWQLLRKEKLAVEKVGNTPLDMNQFRMLFSTCKIPGITRDSIINYF
RTESEGHSPSHLAVLCRGRVFVFDVMHEGYLMTAPEIQRQLTYIQKKCHSEPDGPGVAAL
TTEERTRWAKAREYLISLNPENLTILEKIQSSLLVFCLDDDSPHVTPEDYSQVSAKILNG
DPTVRWGDKSYNLIAFSNGVFGSNCDHAPFDAMVLVKVCYYVDENILENEGRWKGSEKVR
DIPVPEELVFTVDEKVLNDINQAKAQYFKQVSDLQLVVYAFTSFGKKLTKEKQLHPDTFI
QLALQLAYYRLHGRPGCCYETAMTRLFYHGRTETVRPCTVEAVNWCQSMQNPSTSLLERK
HMMLEAFAKHNKMMKDCSTGKGFDRHLLGLSLIAKEEGLPVPELFTDPLFSRSGGGGNFV
LSTSLVGYLRVQGVMVPMVHNGYGFFYHIRDDRFVVSCSAWKSCPETDAEKLVQQVFHAF
CDMMQLMEMPHL
Enzyme 1 Number of Residues 612
Enzyme 1 Molecular Weight 70262.9
Enzyme 1 Theoretical pI 6.72
Enzyme 1 GO Classification
Function
Process
Component
Enzyme 1 General Function Involved in carnitine O-octanoyltransferase activity
Enzyme 1 Specific Function Beta-oxidation of fatty acids. The highest activity concerns the C6 to C10 chain length substrate
Enzyme 1 Pathways
  • Lipid metabolism
  • fatty acid beta-oxidation
Enzyme 1 Reactions Not Available
Enzyme 1 Pfam Domain Function
Enzyme 1 Signals
  • None
Enzyme 1 Transmembrane Regions
  • None
Enzyme 1 Essentiality Not Available
Enzyme 1 GenBank ID Protein 2289038 Link Image
Enzyme 1 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID O19094 Link Image
Enzyme 1 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name OCTC_BOVIN Link Image
Enzyme 1 PDB ID Not Available
Enzyme 1 Cellular Location Not Available
Enzyme 1 Gene Sequence >1839 bp
ATGGAAAATCAACTGGCTAAATCAACTGAAGAAAGGACATTTCAGTACCAAGATTCCCTT
CCATCGCTGCCTGTTCCTTCACTTGAAGAATCATTAAAAAAATACCTTGAATCAGTAAAG
CCATTTGCAAATGAGGAAGAATATAAGAATACTGAAGCAATTGTCTGGAAATTTCAAAAT
GGCATTGGAGAAAAATTGCAGCAGAAATTACTTCAAAGAGCAAAAGGAAGAAGAAACTGG
CTGGAAGAGTGGTGGCTGAATGTTGCCTACCTGGATGTTCGTATACCATCACAACTGAAT
GTCAACTTTGGGGGTCCTGCAAGCCATATTGAACACTACTGGCCTCCAAAGGAAGGCACA
CAGTTGGAAAGAGGAAGTATAAGTCTTTGGCATAACTTGAACTACTGGCAGCTATTAAGA
AAAGAAAAGTTAGCTGTTGAAAAAGTTGGAAATACTCCTCTAGATATGAATCAATTCCGA
ATGCTGTTTTCCACCTGCAAGATTCCAGGAATTACTAGAGATTCAATTATTAATTATTTT
AGGACTGAGAGTGAAGGACATTCTCCAAGTCACCTTGCAGTGTTGTGTCGAGGCCGAGTT
TTTGTCTTTGATGTAATGCATGAGGGATATCTGATGACTGCACCAGAGATTCAGAGGCAA
TTGACATACATCCAAAAGAAATGCCACAGTGAACCCGACGGACCTGGGGTAGCAGCGTTA
ACTACTGAGGAGCGAACTCGATGGGCTAAGGCACGAGAATATTTGATTAGTCTTAATCCA
GAGAACCTGACTATATTAGAAAAAATTCAGAGCAGTTTACTGGTATTTTGTTTAGATGAT
GACAGTCCACATGTTACACCAGAAGATTATTCTCAGGTTTCTGCAAAGATTCTTAATGGA
GACCCAACAGTACGCTGGGGTGACAAATCTTATAACTTGATTGCCTTTTCTAATGGAGTA
TTTGGCAGTAATTGTGATCATGCTCCTTTTGATGCAATGGTTCTGGTAAAAGTCTGCTAT
TATGTTGATGAGAACATTCTTGAGAATGAAGGAAGATGGAAGGGCTCAGAAAAAGTACGG
GATATACCGGTTCCAGAGGAGCTTGTTTTCACTGTGGATGAAAAAGTATTAAATGACATC
AACCAAGCTAAGGCCCAGTATTTCAAGCAGGTGTCCGATCTCCAGCTTGTGGTATATGCC
TTTACGTCTTTTGGCAAAAAGCTAACCAAGGAGAAGCAGCTTCACCCTGATACATTTATT
CAGCTGGCACTTCAGTTGGCCTATTACAGACTTCATGGACGTCCTGGTTGCTGCTATGAA
ACAGCTATGACAAGATTATTTTATCATGGCCGTACAGAGACTGTGCGACCATGTACAGTA
GAAGCAGTCAATTGGTGCCAATCCATGCAGAATCCTTCTACCAGTCTTCTTGAGCGGAAG
CACATGATGTTAGAAGCTTTTGCAAAACATAATAAAATGATGAAAGATTGTTCAACTGGA
AAAGGATTTGACCGTCATCTCTTAGGCCTCTCACTCATAGCAAAGGAGGAAGGCCTCCCT
GTTCCAGAACTCTTCACAGACCCCCTCTTCTCCAGGAGTGGAGGAGGTGGAAACTTTGTT
CTCTCAACCAGTCTGGTTGGTTATTTAAGAGTCCAGGGCGTGATGGTTCCCATGGTGCAC
AATGGCTATGGATTCTTCTATCATATCAGAGATGACAGGTTTGTTGTGTCCTGTTCAGCC
TGGAAATCATGTCCAGAGACTGATGCAGAGAAGCTAGTTCAGCAGGTTTTTCATGCTTTC
TGTGATATGATGCAACTGATGGAAATGCCTCATCTCTAG
Enzyme 1 GenBank Gene ID U65745 Link Image
Enzyme 1 GeneCard ID CROT Link Image
Enzyme 1 GenAtlas ID Not Available
Enzyme 1 HGNC ID Not Available
Enzyme 1 Chromosome Location Chromosome:7
Enzyme 1 Locus 7q21.1
Enzyme 1 SNPs SNPJam Report Link Image
Enzyme 1 General References
  1. [PubMed Link Image]
Enzyme 1 Metabolite References Not Available
Enzyme 2 [top]
Enzyme 2 ID 245
Enzyme 2 Name Carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 1, muscle isoform
Enzyme 2 Synonyms
  1. CPT1-M
  2. Carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase I, muscle isoform
  3. CPTI-M
  4. CPT I
  5. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B
Enzyme 2 Gene Name CPT1B
Enzyme 2 Protein Sequence >Carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 1, muscle isoform
MAEAHQAVAFQFTVTPEGVDFQLSREVLKHIYLSVIRSWKKRLIRIKNGILRGVYPGSPT
SWLVVVMATAGSSYYNVDISMGLVYYIQRWLPEGRPYRTPYTRTLFSMAIFSTGVWMMGI
FFFRQTLKLLLSYHGWMFELHGQTSHLTRVWAVCVRLLSGRRPMLYSFQTSLPKLPVPSV
PATVHRYLESVEHLLDDEQYYRMETLAKEFEEKTAPRLQKYLVLKSWWATNYVSDWWEEY
VYLRGRNPIVVNSNYYVMDLVLVKNTDVQAARLGNAVHAMITYRRKLDREEIKPVMALGL
VPMCSYQMERMFNTTRIPGKDTDVLQHLPDSRHVAVYHKGRFFKVWLYEGSRLLKPRDLE
MQFQRILDDPSPPQPGEERLAALTAGGRVEWAQARQAFFSSGKNKAALDAIERAAFFVAL
DEESHHYDPEDEASLSLYGKALLHGNCYNRWFDKSFTLISFKNGQLGLNTEHAWADAPII
GHLWEFVLGTDSFHLGYTETGHCLGKPNPVLPPPQRLQWDIPKQCQAVIESSYQVAKALA
DDVELYCFQFLPFGKGLIKKCRTSPDAFVQIALQLAHFRDRGKFCLTYEASMTRMFREGR
TETVRSCTRESTAFVQAMVQGRHLNEDLQRLFRKAAEKHQNMYRLAMTGAGIDRHLFCLY
VVSKYLGVESPFLAEVLSEPWRLSTSQIAQFQIRMFDPNKYPKHLGAGGGFGPVADDGYG
VSYMIAGENTIFFHVSSKFSSSETNAQRFGNQIRQALLDIANLFQVPKADG
Enzyme 2 Number of Residues 771
Enzyme 2 Molecular Weight 88511.1
Enzyme 2 Theoretical pI 9.12
Enzyme 2 GO Classification
Function
Process
Component
Enzyme 2 General Function Involved in carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase activity
Enzyme 2 Specific Function Palmitoyl-CoA + L-carnitine = CoA + L- palmitoylcarnitine
Enzyme 2 Pathways
  • Lipid metabolism
  • fatty acid beta-oxidation
Enzyme 2 Reactions Not Available
Enzyme 2 Pfam Domain Function
Enzyme 2 Signals
  • None
Enzyme 2 Transmembrane Regions
  • 48-73 102-121
Enzyme 2 Essentiality Not Available
Enzyme 2 GenBank ID Protein 61553692 Link Image
Enzyme 2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID Q58DK1 Link Image
Enzyme 2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name CPT1B_BOVIN Link Image
Enzyme 2 PDB ID Not Available
Enzyme 2 Cellular Location Not Available
Enzyme 2 Gene Sequence >2316 bp
ATGGCGGAAGCGCACCAGGCTGTGGCCTTCCAGTTCACTGTGACCCCAGAGGGGGTCGAC
TTCCAGCTCAGTCGGGAGGTGCTGAAACACATCTACCTGTCCGTGATCAGGTCCTGGAAG
AAACGCCTGATTCGCATCAAGAATGGCATCCTCAGGGGCGTGTACCCTGGCAGCCCCACC
AGCTGGCTGGTCGTGGTTATGGCAACAGCGGGTTCCTCCTACTACAACGTGGACATTTCC
ATGGGACTGGTCTATTATATCCAGAGATGGCTTCCTGAGGGGCGTCCCTACCGGACCCCA
TACACCCGGACGCTTTTCAGCATGGCCATCTTCTCCACGGGGGTCTGGATGATGGGCATC
TTCTTCTTTCGCCAAACCCTGAAACTGCTTCTTTCCTACCACGGTTGGATGTTTGAGTTG
CACGGCCAGACCAGCCACTTGACCAGAGTCTGGGCTGTCTGTGTCCGCCTTCTGTCTGGC
CGACGGCCCATGCTCTACAGCTTCCAGACGTCTCTGCCCAAGCTGCCGGTGCCCAGCGTG
CCAGCCACAGTTCATCGGTACCTAGAATCCGTGGAACACTTGCTGGATGATGAGCAATAT
TATCGAATGGAGACGCTGGCCAAGGAGTTCGAGGAGAAGACTGCCCCCAGGCTGCAGAAG
TACCTGGTACTCAAGTCCTGGTGGGCAACCAACTACGTGAGCGACTGGTGGGAGGAGTAC
GTCTACCTCCGGGGCAGGAACCCCATCGTGGTCAACAGCAACTACTACGTCATGGACCTG
GTGCTCGTCAAGAACACGGACGTGCAGGCTGCCCGCCTGGGAAATGCTGTCCACGCCATG
ATCACGTATCGCCGTAAACTGGACCGTGAAGAGATCAAGCCTGTGATGGCGCTGGGCCTC
GTGCCCATGTGCTCCTACCAGATGGAGAGGATGTTCAACACCACTCGCATCCCAGGGAAG
GACACAGATGTGCTCCAGCACCTCCCGGACAGCAGGCACGTGGCTGTCTACCACAAGGGC
CGATTTTTCAAGGTGTGGCTCTACGAGGGCTCCCGCCTGCTCAAGCCTCGGGACCTGGAG
ATGCAGTTCCAGAGGATCCTGGACGACCCCTCCCCACCCCAGCCCGGGGAGGAGAGACTG
GCAGCCCTCACTGCAGGGGGAAGAGTGGAGTGGGCACAGGCACGCCAGGCCTTCTTCAGC
TCTGGCAAGAACAAGGCTGCCCTGGATGCCATCGAGCGCGCTGCGTTCTTCGTGGCTCTG
GATGAGGAGTCTCACCACTATGACCCGGAGGACGAGGCCAGCCTCAGCCTCTACGGCAAG
GCCCTGTTGCACGGCAACTGCTACAACAGGTGGTTCGACAAGTCCTTCACACTCATCTCT
TTCAAGAACGGCCAGCTGGGACTCAACACAGAGCACGCGTGGGCAGACGCCCCTATCATA
GGGCACCTCTGGGAGTTTGTCCTGGGCACCGACTCCTTCCATCTGGGCTACACAGAGACG
GGGCACTGTCTGGGCAAACCCAACCCTGTGCTGCCCCCACCTCAGCGACTCCAGTGGGAC
ATTCCTAAGCAGTGCCAGGCGGTCATCGAGAGTTCCTACCAGGTGGCCAAGGCGCTGGCG
GACGATGTGGAGCTGTACTGCTTCCAGTTCCTGCCTTTTGGCAAAGGCCTCATCAAGAAG
TGCCGGACCAGCCCTGACGCCTTCGTGCAGATCGCCCTGCAGCTGGCGCACTTCCGGGAC
AGGGGCAAGTTCTGCCTGACCTATGAAGCCTCAATGACTAGAATGTTCCGAGAGGGCCGG
ACGGAGACCGTGCGCTCCTGCACCCGCGAGTCCACAGCCTTTGTCCAGGCCATGGTGCAG
GGGCGCCACCTGAACGAAGACCTCCAACGTCTGTTCCGGAAGGCTGCTGAGAAGCACCAG
AATATGTACCGCCTGGCCATGACAGGGGCGGGGATTGACAGGCACCTCTTCTGCCTTTAC
GTGGTCTCCAAGTACCTGGGAGTCGAATCCCCTTTCCTGGCTGAGGTGCTCTCAGAACCC
TGGCGCCTCTCCACTAGCCAGATCGCTCAATTCCAGATCCGTATGTTCGACCCAAACAAG
TACCCCAAACACCTTGGTGCCGGCGGTGGCTTTGGCCCTGTGGCAGATGACGGCTATGGA
GTTTCCTACATGATCGCGGGTGAGAACACCATCTTCTTCCACGTCTCCAGCAAGTTCTCC
AGCTCAGAGACAAATGCCCAGCGCTTTGGGAACCAGATCCGCCAAGCTCTGCTAGACATC
GCCAATCTTTTCCAAGTTCCCAAGGCTGATGGCTAA
Enzyme 2 GenBank Gene ID BT021596 Link Image
Enzyme 2 GeneCard ID CPT1B Link Image
Enzyme 2 GenAtlas ID Not Available
Enzyme 2 HGNC ID Not Available
Enzyme 2 Chromosome Location Chromosome:2
Enzyme 2 Locus 22q13.33
Enzyme 2 SNPs SNPJam Report Link Image
Enzyme 2 General References
  1. [PubMed Link Image]
Enzyme 2 Metabolite References Not Available
Enzyme 3 [top]
Enzyme 3 ID 246
Enzyme 3 Name Carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 2, mitochondrial
Enzyme 3 Synonyms
  1. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II
  2. CPT II
Enzyme 3 Gene Name CPT2
Enzyme 3 Protein Sequence >Carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 2, mitochondrial
MVARLLLRSWSRGLAVGPGAPCRPLSTGFEPSQYLQRSIVPTMHYQDSLPRLPIPKLEDT
IRRYLSAQKPLLDDSQFRKTEQLCKSFETGIGKELHEQLVTQDKQNKHTSYISGPWFDMY
LTARDPVVLNFNPFISFNPDPKSEYNDQLTRATNMTVSAIRFLKTLRADLLEPEVFHLNP
AKSDTDTFKRFIRFVPSFLSWYGAYLVNAYPLDMSQYYRLFNSTRLPRPHRDELFTDDKA
RHLLVLRKGHFYIFDVLDQDGNIVSASEIQAHLKYILSDNSPAPEFPLSYLTSENRDIWA
ELRQRLVSGGNEATLGKVDSAVFCLCLDDFPIRDFVHLSHSMLHGDGTNRWFDKSFNLII
AKDGTAAIHFEHAWGDGVAVLRFFNEVFKDSTQAPAITPQSQPASTDSSVAVQKLNFKLS
DALKTGISAAKEKFDATVKSLTIDYIRFQRGGREFLKKQKLSPDSMAQLAFQMAFLRQYG
QTVATYESCSTAAFKHGRTETIRPASIFTKTCSEAFVREPSKYSAGELQQMMAKCSTYHN
QLTREAAMGQGFDRHLFALRYLAAARGISMPELFLDPAYRQINHNILSTSTLSSPAVNIG
CFAPVVPDGFGIGYSVQDNWIGCNVSAYQSRNAREFLQCVEKALEDMFDALEGKMIKT
Enzyme 3 Number of Residues 658
Enzyme 3 Molecular Weight 74482.0
Enzyme 3 Theoretical pI 8.25
Enzyme 3 GO Classification
Function
Process
Component
Enzyme 3 General Function Involved in carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase activity
Enzyme 3 Specific Function Palmitoyl-CoA + L-carnitine = CoA + L- palmitoylcarnitine
Enzyme 3 Pathways Not Available
Enzyme 3 Reactions Not Available
Enzyme 3 Pfam Domain Function
Enzyme 3 Signals
  • None
Enzyme 3 Transmembrane Regions
  • None
Enzyme 3 Essentiality Not Available
Enzyme 3 GenBank ID Protein 86821670 Link Image
Enzyme 3 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID Q2KJB7 Link Image
Enzyme 3 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name CPT2_BOVIN Link Image
Enzyme 3 PDB ID Not Available
Enzyme 3 Cellular Location Not Available
Enzyme 3 Gene Sequence >1977 bp
ATGGTGGCCCGCCTGCTGCTGCGCTCTTGGTCCCGGGGCCTTGCCGTTGGCCCGGGAGCC
CCATGTCGGCCCTTGAGCACCGGCTTCGAGCCCAGCCAGTACCTGCAGCGCAGCATCGTG
CCCACTATGCACTACCAGGACAGCCTGCCCAGGCTGCCTATTCCCAAACTTGAAGACACC
ATTAGAAGATACCTCAGTGCACAGAAGCCTCTGTTGGATGACAGCCAGTTCAGGAAAACA
GAACAGTTGTGTAAGAGTTTTGAAACTGGAATTGGAAAAGAACTGCATGAGCAGCTGGTC
ACTCAGGACAAGCAGAATAAACATACAAGCTACATTTCAGGCCCCTGGTTTGATATGTAT
TTAACTGCTCGAGATCCTGTTGTCCTGAACTTTAATCCGTTTATCTCATTCAACCCTGAT
CCAAAGTCCGAGTATAATGACCAGCTCACCCGGGCCACCAACATGACTGTCTCTGCCATC
CGGTTTCTGAAGACACTTCGGGCTGACCTTCTGGAGCCAGAAGTGTTCCATTTGAACCCT
GCCAAAAGTGATACCGATACCTTCAAGAGATTCATACGCTTTGTGCCTTCCTTCCTGTCT
TGGTATGGCGCCTACTTGGTCAATGCATATCCCCTGGACATGTCCCAGTATTATCGGCTT
TTCAATTCAACTCGTTTACCCAGACCCCATCGAGATGAACTCTTCACCGATGACAAGGCC
AGACACCTCCTGGTCCTAAGAAAAGGACACTTCTACATCTTTGATGTCCTGGATCAAGAT
GGGAACATTGTGAGTGCCTCTGAAATCCAGGCTCATCTGAAGTACATTCTGTCAGACAAT
AGCCCGGCCCCCGAGTTTCCGCTTTCGTATCTGACTAGTGAGAACCGGGACATCTGGGCA
GAGCTCAGACAGAGGCTGGTGAGTGGTGGCAACGAGGCGACCCTGGGGAAAGTGGACTCG
GCTGTGTTCTGTCTCTGCCTAGATGACTTCCCCATTAGGGACTTTGTCCACCTGTCCCAC
AGCATGCTGCATGGTGACGGCACAAACCGCTGGTTTGACAAATCCTTTAACCTCATTATA
GCCAAGGATGGCACTGCTGCCATCCACTTTGAGCATGCCTGGGGCGATGGTGTTGCAGTG
CTCAGGTTTTTTAATGAAGTGTTTAAAGATAGCACTCAGGCCCCTGCCATCACTCCCCAG
AGCCAGCCGGCCAGCACTGACTCTTCTGTGGCTGTACAAAAACTCAACTTCAAGCTGAGC
GATGCTTTAAAGACTGGCATTAGCGCTGCTAAGGAAAAATTTGATGCCACCGTGAAAAGC
CTCACCATCGACTACATCCGGTTTCAGAGAGGAGGCAGAGAATTCCTGAAGAAGCAGAAG
CTGAGCCCTGACTCGATGGCTCAGCTGGCCTTCCAGATGGCCTTCCTGCGGCAGTACGGG
CAGACGGTGGCCACCTATGAGTCCTGTAGCACTGCAGCATTCAAGCACGGCCGCACCGAG
ACCATCCGCCCGGCCTCCATCTTCACAAAGACGTGCTCCGAGGCCTTTGTCAGGGAGCCT
TCCAAGTATAGCGCTGGAGAGCTTCAGCAGATGATGGCCAAGTGCTCCACATACCACAAC
CAGCTGACCAGAGAAGCAGCAATGGGCCAGGGCTTTGATCGACACTTGTTTGCTCTGCGG
TACCTGGCAGCAGCCAGAGGGATCAGCATGCCCGAGCTGTTCCTGGACCCTGCATATAGG
CAGATAAACCACAACATCCTGTCCACCAGCACACTGAGCAGCCCAGCAGTGAACATCGGC
TGCTTTGCCCCCGTGGTCCCTGATGGTTTTGGCATTGGGTACTCCGTTCAGGACAACTGG
ATAGGCTGCAACGTCTCTGCCTACCAAAGCCGCAATGCCCGTGAGTTTCTCCAGTGTGTG
GAGAAGGCCTTAGAAGACATGTTTGATGCCTTGGAAGGCAAAATGATCAAAACCTAG
Enzyme 3 GenBank Gene ID BC105423 Link Image
Enzyme 3 GeneCard ID CPT2 Link Image
Enzyme 3 GenAtlas ID Not Available
Enzyme 3 HGNC ID Not Available
Enzyme 3 Chromosome Location Chromosome:1
Enzyme 3 Locus 1p32
Enzyme 3 SNPs SNPJam Report Link Image
Enzyme 3 General References Not Available
Enzyme 3 Metabolite References Not Available
Enzyme 4 [top]
Enzyme 4 ID 1571
Enzyme 4 Name Solute carrier family 22 member 16
Enzyme 4 Synonyms
  1. Carnitine transporter 2
  2. CT2
Enzyme 4 Gene Name SLC22A16
Enzyme 4 Protein Sequence >Solute carrier family 22 member 16
MGSSNLELIFDSVGHFGRYQIFLYFICAFQNISCGIHYLASVFLSVSPQHTCRPPGNVSQ
VLFQDLSTWQLEDIWTQFSVGREDRILVQLQDGAIWELTSCQRFRRDDQSSLDYEYSGQK
SSFPCLDGYIYDRSKWLSTVVTQWDLVCNREWFGRLIQPTFMFGVLLGAVIFGYLSDRAG
RRLVLWASSTGVFLFGIAAAFTFDYYSFIVARFLLAISGSGYLVVVFVYVTEFVGMKSRT
WASIHLHSFFAFGTMVVALTGYFVRTWWIYQIVLSSVTVPFVLCCWMLPETPFWLISGGK
YEEAQKVIDTMAKWNRTRPCKLSEILSLDHDGSAGNKPSQVEKHTLSELFYDWSIGTRTL
ILWLIWFTGCLGFYTFSLNSVHLGGSEYLNLFLMGVVEIPAYVLVCLGMDRVGRRNILIF
SLLSSAVTSGVIMVIPKDYHVWLVVASMAGKFFIGAAFGLIYLYTAELYPTIVRSLAVGS
GSTVGRVGSIVAPLCIYLSSVWIFMPQLLVGTLALVSGVLTFLLPETLRRPLTTTWEETE
KESSSGKLLSTTSNTVLENVTVENSEDSSLNK
Enzyme 4 Number of Residues 572
Enzyme 4 Molecular Weight 64353.9
Enzyme 4 Theoretical pI 6.59
Enzyme 4 GO Classification
Function
Process
Component
Enzyme 4 General Function Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Enzyme 4 Specific Function High affinity carnitine transporter; the uptake is partially sodium-ion dependent. Thought to mediate the L-carnitine secretion mechanism from testis epididymal epithelium into the lumen which is involved in the maturation of spermatozoa. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) and doxorubicin. The uptake of TEA is inhibited by various organic cations. The uptake of doxorubicin is sodium-independent
Enzyme 4 Pathways Not Available
Enzyme 4 Reactions Not Available
Enzyme 4 Pfam Domain Function
Enzyme 4 Signals
  • None
Enzyme 4 Transmembrane Regions
  • 21-41 156-176 183-203 208-228 244-264 268-288 359-379 389-409 416-436 441-461 476-496 503-523
Enzyme 4 Essentiality Not Available
Enzyme 4 GenBank ID Protein 109658448 Link Image
Enzyme 4 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID Q17QN9 Link Image
Enzyme 4 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name S22AG_BOVIN Link Image
Enzyme 4 PDB ID Not Available
Enzyme 4 Cellular Location Not Available
Enzyme 4 Gene Sequence >906 bp
ATGGGGTCCAGCAACTTGGAGCTGATTTTTGACAGCGTGGGGCACTTCGGCAGATACCAA
ATATTCCTCTATTTTATATGTGCCTTCCAAAATATCTCTTGTGGTATCCACTACTTGGCT
TCTGTGTTCTTGTCAGTGTCCCCCCAGCATACCTGTAGGCCCCCAGGCAATGTGAGTCAG
GTTCTTTTCCAAGACCTCTCTACTTGGCAGTTGGAGGACATCTGGACCCAGTTCTCCGTA
GGCCGTGAGGATCGCATTCTCGTGCAGCTGCAGGATGGGGCGATCTGGGAGCTTACCAGC
TGTCAGAGGTTCCGGAGGGATGACCAGTCGAGCCTGGACTATGAGTACAGCGGCCAGAAG
AGCAGCTTCCCTTGCTTGGATGGCTACATCTACGACAGAAGCAAGTGGCTCAGCACTGTG
GTGACCCAGTGGGACCTGGTGTGTAACCGAGAGTGGTTTGGAAGGCTGATCCAGCCCACG
TTTATGTTTGGAGTCCTGCTGGGAGCAGTGATCTTTGGCTACCTCTCCGACAGGGCAGGA
AGACGACTTGTTTTGTGGGCCTCAAGCACCGGTGTATTTTTGTTTGGCATAGCGGCGGCA
TTCACATTTGATTATTACAGCTTCATAGTCGCACGCTTTCTTCTTGCTATCTCTGGAAGT
GGCTATCTCGTGGTGGTGTTTGTCTATGTGACAGAATTTGTCGGCATGAAGTCTCGGACG
TGGGCGTCCATCCACTTGCATTCCTTTTTTTGCTTTTGGAACCATGGTGGTGGCTTTGAC
GGGCTACTTCGTCAGGACCTGGTGGATCTATCAGATAGTCCTCTCCTCCGTGACTGTCCC
CTTTGTCTTGTGCTGTTGGATGCTCCCAGAGACACCTTTTTGGCTTATCTCAGGGGGAAA
ATATGA
Enzyme 4 GenBank Gene ID BC118253 Link Image
Enzyme 4 GeneCard ID SLC22A16 Link Image
Enzyme 4 GenAtlas ID Not Available
Enzyme 4 HGNC ID Not Available
Enzyme 4 Chromosome Location Chromosome:6
Enzyme 4 Locus 6q22.1|6q21-q22.1
Enzyme 4 SNPs SNPJam Report Link Image
Enzyme 4 General References Not Available
Enzyme 4 Metabolite References Not Available