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Bovine Metabolome Database



Showing metabocard for Biotin (BMDB00030)

Legend: metabolite field enzyme field

Version 1.0
Creation Date 2005-11-16 15:48:42
Update Date 2009-05-05 20:57:38
Accession Number BMDB00030
Common Name Biotin
Description Biotin is an enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. Biotin is also known as vitamin H or B7 or coenzyme R. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk. Biotin has been recognized as an essential nutrient. Our biotin requirement is fulfilled in part through diet, through endogenous reutilization of biotin and perhaps through capture of biotin generated in the intestinal flora. The utilization of biotin for covalent attachment to carboxylases and its reutilization through the release of carboxylase biotin after proteolytic degradation constitutes the 'biotin cycle'. Biotin deficiency is associated with neurological manifestations, skin rash, hair loss and metabolic disturbances that are thought to relate to the various carboxylase deficiencies (metabolic ketoacidosis with lactic acidosis). It has also been suggested that biotin deficiency is associated with protein malnutrition, and that marginal biotin deficiency in pregnant women may be teratogenic. Biotin acts as a carboxyl carrier in carboxylation reactions. There are four biotin-dependent carboxylases in mammals: those of propionyl-CoA (PCC), 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA (MCC), pyruvate (PC) and acetyl-CoA carboxylases (isoforms ACC-1 and ACC-2). All but ACC-2 are mitochondrial enzymes. The biotin moiety is covalently bound to the epsilon amino group of a Lysine residue in each of these carboxylases in a domain 60-80 amino acids long. The domain is structurally similar among carboxylases from bacteria to mammals. There are four biotin-dependent carboxylases in mammals: those of propionyl-CoA (PCC), 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA (MCC), pyruvate (PC) and acetyl-CoA carboxylases (isoforms ACC-1 and ACC-2). All but ACC-2 are mitochondrial enzymes. The biotin moiety is covalently bound to the epsilon amino group of a Lys residue in each of these carboxylases in a domain 60-80 amino acids long. The domain is structurally similar among carboxylases from bacteria to mammals. Evidence is emerging that biotin participates in processes other than classical carboxylation reactions. Specifically, novel roles for biotin in cell signaling, gene expression, and chromatin structure have been identified in recent years. Human cells accumulate biotin by using both the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter and monocarboxylate transporter 1. These transporters and other biotin-binding proteins partition biotin to compartments involved in biotin signaling: cytoplasm, mitochondria, and nuclei. The activity of cell signals such as biotinyl-AMP, Sp1 and Sp3, nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, and receptor tyrosine kinases depends on biotin supply. Consistent with a role for biotin and its catabolites in modulating these cell signals, greater than 2000 biotin-dependent genes have been identified in various human tissues. Many biotin-dependent gene products play roles in signal transduction and localize to the cell nucleus, consistent with a role for biotin in cell signaling. Posttranscriptional events related to ribosomal activity and protein folding may further contribute to effects of biotin on gene expression. Finally, research has shown that biotinidase and holocarboxylase synthetase mediate covalent binding of biotin to histones (DNA-binding proteins), affecting chromatin structure; at least seven biotinylation sites have been identified in human histones. Biotinylation of histones appears to play a role in cell proliferation, gene silencing, and the cellular response to DNA repair. Roles for biotin in cell signaling and chromatin structure are consistent with the notion that biotin has a unique significance in cell biology. (PMID: 15992684, 16011464)
Synonyms
  1. (+)-Biotin
  2. (+)-cis-Hexahydro-2-oxo-1H-thieno[3,4]imidazole-4-valerate
  3. (+)-cis-Hexahydro-2-oxo-1H-thieno[3,4]imidazole-4-valeric acid
  4. (3aS,4S,6aR)-Hexahydro-2-oxo-1H-thieno[3,4-d]imidazole-4-valerate
  5. (3aS,4S,6aR)-Hexahydro-2-oxo-1H-thieno[3,4-d]imidazole-4-valeric acid
  6. -(+)-biotin
  7. 1swk
  8. 1swn
  9. 1swr
  10. 5-(2-oxohexahydro-1H-thieno[3,4-d]imidazol-4-yl)pentanoate
  11. 5-(2-oxohexahydro-1H-thieno[3,4-d]imidazol-4-yl)pentanoic acid
  12. Biodermatin
  13. Bioepiderm
  14. Bios h
  15. Bios II
  16. Biotin
  17. cis-(+)-Tetrahydro-2-oxothieno[3,4]imidazoline-4-valerate
  18. cis-(+)-Tetrahydro-2-oxothieno[3,4]imidazoline-4-valeric acid
  19. cis-Hexahydro-2-oxo-1H-thieno(3,4)imidazole-4-valeric acid
  20. cis-Tetrahydro-2-oxothieno(3,4-d)imidazoline-4-valeric acid
  21. Coenzyme R
  22. D(+)-Biotin
  23. D-(+)-biotin
  24. d-Biotin
  25. D-biotin factor s
  26. delta-(+)-Biotin
  27. delta-Biotin
  28. Factor s
  29. Factor s (vitamin)
  30. Hexahydro-2-oxo-1H-thieno(3,4-d)imidazole-4-pentanoic acid
  31. hexahydro-2-oxo-[3aS-(3aa,4b,6aa)]-1H-Thieno[3,4-d]imidazole-4-pentanoate
  32. hexahydro-2-oxo-[3aS-(3aa,4b,6aa)]-1H-Thieno[3,4-d]imidazole-4-pentanoic acid
  33. hexahydro-2-oxo-[3as-(3alpha,4beta,6alpha)]-1H-Thieno[3,4-d]imidazole-4-pentanoate
  34. hexahydro-2-oxo-[3as-(3alpha,4beta,6alpha)]-1H-Thieno[3,4-d]imidazole-4-pentanoic acid
  35. Rovimix H 2
  36. Vitamin B7
  37. Vitamin H
  38. Vitamin-h
  39. delta-biotin factor s
  40. Lutavit H2
  41. Meribin
  42. Hexahydro-2-oxo-1H-thieno(3,4-d)imidazole-4-pentanoate
Chemical IUPAC Name 5-(7-oxo-3-thia-6,8-diazabicyclo[3.3.0]oct-4-yl)pentanoic acid
Chemical Formula C10H16N2O3S
Chemical Structure Structure
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom
  • Organic
Super Class
  • Heterocyclic molecules
Class
  • Biotin and Derivatives
Sub Class
  • Modified biotins
Family
  • Mammalian_Metabolite
Species
  • thioether; carboxylic acid; urea; heterocyclic compound
Biofunction
  • Essential vitamins; Component of Biotin metabolism
Application
Source
  • Exogenous
Average Molecular Weight 244.311
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 244.088165
Isomeric SMILES OC(=O)CCCC[C@@H]1SC[C@@H]2NC(=O)N[C@H]12
Canonical SMILES OC(=O)CCCCC1SCC2NC(=O)NC12
KEGG Compound ID C00120 Link Image
BioCyc ID BIOTIN Link Image
BiGG ID 33931 Link Image
Wikipedia Link Biotin Link Image
METLIN ID 243 Link Image
PubChem Compound 171548 Link Image
PubChem Substance 10257672 Link Image
ChEBI ID 15956 Link Image
CAS Registry Number 58-85-5
InChI Identifier InChI=1/C10H16N2O3S/c13-8(14)4-2-1-3-7-9-6(5-16-7)11-10(15)12-9/h6-7,9H,1-5H2,(H,13,14)(H2,11,12,15)/t6-,7-,9-/m0/s1
Synthesis Reference Corey, E. J.; Mehrotra, Mukund M. A simple and enantioselective synthesis of (+)-biotin. Tetrahedron Letters (1988), 29(1), 57-60.
Melting Point (Experimental) 232 oC
Experimental Water Solubility 0.22 mg/mL at 25 oC [MERCK INDEX (1996)] Source: PhysProp
Predicted Water Solubility 1.22 mg/mL [Predicted by ALOGPS] Calculated using ALOGPS
Physiological Charge -1
State Solid
Experimental LogP/Hydrophobicity . Source: PhysProp
Predicted LogP/Hydrophobicity 0.39 [MEYLAN,WM & HOWARD,PH (1995)]; 0.17 [Predicted by ALOGPS]; 0.5 [Predicted by PubChem via XLOGP] Calculated using ALOGPS
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
MOL File Show
SDF File Show
PDB File Show
2D Structure
3D Structure
Experimental PDB ID 1AVD Link Image
Experimental PDB File Show
Experimental PDB Structure
Experimental 1H NMR Spectrum Download Spectrum
Download FID (Bruker)
Show Experimental Conditions Link Image
Experimental 13C NMR Spectrum Not Available
Experimental 13C HSQC Spectrum Download Spectrum
Download FID (Bruker)
Show Experimental Conditions Link Image
Predicted 1H NMR Spectrum Show Image
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Predicted 13C NMR Spectrum Show Image
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Mass Spectrum Not Available
Simplified TOCSY Spectrum Show Image
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BMRB Spectrum Show Image
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Cellular Location
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • mitochondria
  • nucleus
Biofluid Location
  • Breast_Milk
Tissue Location
Tissue References
All Tissues
Concentrations (Normal)
Biofluid Breast_Milk
Value 0.0195 uM
Age N/A
Sex N/A
Condition Normal
Comments Milk, Partly Skimmed, 2% fat.
References
Concentrations (Abnormal) Not Available
Pathway Names
  • Biotin metabolism
HMDB Pathways
Name Biotin metabolism
Image Show Link Image
KEGG Pathways
Name Biotin metabolism
Image Show Link Image
SimCell Pathways Not Available
General References
  1. Wikipedia Link Image
Metabolic Enzymes
  1. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1
  2. Pyruvate carboxylase, mitochondrial
  3. Pyruvate carboxylase
  4. PCCA protein
  5. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase, type beta
  6. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase, type beta
Enzyme 1 [top]
Enzyme 1 ID 204
Enzyme 1 Name Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1
Enzyme 1 Synonyms
  1. ACC-alpha
  2. Biotin carboxylase
Enzyme 1 Gene Name ACACA
Enzyme 1 Protein Sequence >Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1
MDEPSSLAKPLELNQHSRFIIGSVSEDNSEDEISNLVKLDLLEEKEGSLSPASVSSDTLS
DLGISSLQDGLALHMRSSMSGLHLVKQGRDRKKIDSQRDFTVASPAEFVTRFGGNKVIEK
VLIANNGIAAVKCMRSIRRWSYEMFRNERAIRFVVMVTPEDLKANAEYIKMADHYVPVPG
GPNNNNYANVELILDIAKRIPVQAVWAGWGHASENPKLPELLLKNGIAFMGPPSQAMWAL
GDKIASSIVAQTAGIPTLPWSGSGLCVDWHENDFSKRILNVPQELYEKGYVKDVDDGLKA
AEEVGYPVMIKASEGGGGKGIRKVNNADDFPNLFRQVQAEVPGSPIFVMRLAKQSRHLEV
QILADQYGNAISLFGRDCSVQRRHQKIIEEAPAAIATPAVFEHMEQCAVKLARMVGYVSA
GTVEYLYSQDGSFYFLELNPRLQVEHPCTEMVADVNLPAAQLQIAMGIPLYRIKDIRMMY
GVSPWGDAPIDFENSAHVPCPRGHVIAARITSENPDEGFKPSSGTVQELNFRSNKNVWGY
FSVAAAGGLHEFADSQFGHCFSWGENREEAISNMVVALKELSIRGDFRTTVEYLIKLLET
ESFQLNRIGTGWLDRLIAEKVQAERPDTMLGVVCGALHVADVSLRNSISNFLHSLERGQV
LTAHTLLNTVDVELIYEGVKYVLKVTRQSPNSYVVIMNGSCVEVDVHRLSDGGLLLSYDV
SSYTTYMKEEVDRYRITIGNKTCVFEKENDPSVLRSPSAGKLIQYIVEDGGHVFAGQCYA
EIEVMKMVMTLTAAESGCIHYVKRPGAALDPGCVIAKMQLDNPSKVQQAELHTGSLPRIQ
STALRGEKLHRVFHYVLDNLVNVMNGYCLPDPFFSSRVKDWVERLMKTLRDPSLPLLELQ
DIMTSVSGRIPPNVEKSIKKEMAQYASNITSVLCQFPSQQIANILDSHAATLNRKSEREV
FFMNTQSIVQLVQRYRSGIRGHMKAVVMDLLRQYLRVETQFQNGHYDKCVFALREENKSD
MNTVLNYIFSHAQVTRKNLLVTMLIDQLCGRGPTLTDELLNILTELTQLSKTTNAKVALR
ARQVLIASHLPSYELRLNQVESIFLSAIDMYGHQFCIENLQKLILSETSIFDVLPNFFYH
SNQVVRMAALEVYVRRAYIAYELNSVQHRQLKDNTCVVEFQFMLPTSHPNRGNIPTLNRM
SFSSNLNHYGMTHVASVSDVLLDNAFTPPCQRMGGMVSFRTFEDFVRIFDEVMGCFCDSP
PQSPTFPEAGHTSLYDEDKVPRDEPIHILNVAIKTDCDIEDDSLAAMFREFTQQNKATLV
EHGIRRLTFLVAQKDFRKQVNYEVDQRFHREFPKFFTFRARDKFEEDRIYRHLEPALAFQ
LELNRMRNFDLTAIPCANHKMHLYLGAAKVEVGTEVTDYRFFVRAIIRHSDLVTKEASFE
YLQNEGERLLLEAMDELEVAFNNTNVRTDCNHIFLNFVPTVIMDPSKIEESVRSMVMRYG
SRLWKLRVLQAELKINIRLTPTGKAIPIRLFLTNESGYYLDISLYKEVTDSRTAQIMFQA
YGDKQGPLHGMLINTPYVTKDQLQSKRFQAQSLGTTYIYDIPEMFRQSLIKLWESMSSQA
FLPPPPLPSDILTYTELVLDDQGQLVHMNRLPGGNEIGMVAWKMTLKSPEYPDGRDIIVI
GNDITYRIGSFGPQEDLLFLRASELARAEGIPRIYVAANSGARIGLAEEIRHMFHVAWVD
PEDPYKGYKYLYLTPQDYKRVSALNSVHCEHVEDEGESRYKITDIIGKEEGLGAENLRGS
GMIAGESSLAYDEIITISLVTCRAIGIGAYLVRLGQRTIQVENSHLILTGAGALNKVLGR
EVYTSNNQLGGIQIMHNNGVTHSTVCDDFEGVFTVLHWLSYMPKSVYSSVPLLNSKDPID
RVIEFVPTKAPYDPRWMLAGRPHPTQKGQWLSGFFDYGSFSEIMQPWAQTVVVGRARLGG
IPVGVVAVETRTVELSIPADPANLDSEAKIIQQAGQVWFPDSAFKTYQAIKDFNREGLPL
MVFANWRGFSGGMKDMYDQVLKFGAYIVDGLRECSQPVMVYIPPQAELRGGSWVVIDPTI
NPRHMEMYADRESRGSVLEPEGTVEIKFRRKDLVKTMRRVDPVYIHLAERLGTPELSVAE
RKELESKLKEREEFLLPIYHQVAVQFADLHDTPGRMQEKGVINDILDWKTSRTFFYWRLR
RLLLEDLVKKKIHNANPELTDGQIQAMLRRWFVEVEGTVKAYVWDNNKDLVEWLEKQLTE
EDGVRSVIEENIKYISRDYVLKQIRSLVQANPEVAMDSIVHMTQHISPTQRAEVVRILST
MDSPST
Enzyme 1 Number of Residues 2346
Enzyme 1 Molecular Weight 265300.6
Enzyme 1 Theoretical pI 6.35
Enzyme 1 GO Classification
Function
Process
Component
Enzyme 1 General Function Lipid transport and metabolism
Enzyme 1 Specific Function Catalyzes the rate-limiting reaction in the biogenesis of long-chain fatty acids. Carries out three functions:biotin carboxyl carrier protein, biotin carboxylase and carboxyltransferase
Enzyme 1 Pathways
  • Lipid metabolism
  • malonyl-CoA biosynthesis
  • malonyl-CoA from acetyl-CoA:step 1/1
Enzyme 1 Reactions Not Available
Enzyme 1 Pfam Domain Function
Enzyme 1 Signals
  • None
Enzyme 1 Transmembrane Regions
  • None
Enzyme 1 Essentiality Not Available
Enzyme 1 GenBank ID Protein 6006405 Link Image
Enzyme 1 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID Q9TTS3 Link Image
Enzyme 1 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name ACACA_BOVIN Link Image
Enzyme 1 PDB ID Not Available
Enzyme 1 Cellular Location Not Available
Enzyme 1 Gene Sequence Not Available
Enzyme 1 GenBank Gene ID AJ132890 Link Image
Enzyme 1 GeneCard ID ACACA Link Image
Enzyme 1 GenAtlas ID Not Available
Enzyme 1 HGNC ID Not Available
Enzyme 1 Chromosome Location Chromosome:1
Enzyme 1 Locus 17q21
Enzyme 1 SNPs SNPJam Report Link Image
Enzyme 1 General References
  1. [PubMed Link Image]
Enzyme 1 Metabolite References Not Available
Enzyme 2 [top]
Enzyme 2 ID 615
Enzyme 2 Name Pyruvate carboxylase, mitochondrial
Enzyme 2 Synonyms
  1. Pyruvic carboxylase
  2. PCB
Enzyme 2 Gene Name PC
Enzyme 2 Protein Sequence >Pyruvate carboxylase, mitochondrial
MLKFQTVRGSLRLLAIRRTSTATAASPNVRRLEYKPIKKVMVANRGEIAIRVFRACTELG
IRTVAVYSEQDTGQMHRQKADEAYLIGRGLAPVQAYLHIPDIIKVAKENNVDAVHPGYGF
LSERADFAQACQDAGVRFIGPSPEVVRKMGDKVEARAIAIAAGVPVVPGTDAPITSLHEA
HEFSNTYGFPIIFKAAYGGGGRGMRVVHSYEELEENYTRAYSEALAAFGNGALFVEKFIE
KPRHIEVQILGDQYGNILHLYERDCSIQRRHQKVVEIAPAAHLDPQLRTRLTSDSVKLAK
QVGYENAGTVEFLVDRHGKHYFIEVNSRLQVEHTVTEEITDVDLVHAQIHVAEGRSLPDL
GLRQENIRINGCAIQCRVTTEDPARSFQPDTGRIEVFRSGEGMGIRLDNASAFQGAVISP
HYDSLLVKVIAHGKDHPTAATKMSRALAEFRVRGVKTNIPFLQNVLNNQQFLAGTVDTQF
IDENPELFQLRPAQNRAQKLLHYLGHVMVNGPTTPIPVKASPSPTDPIVPVVPIGPPPTG
FRDILLREGPEGFARAVRNHEGLLLMDTTFRDAHQSLLATRVRTHDLKKISPYVAHSFNK
LFSIENWGGATFDVAMRFLYECPWRRLQELRELVPNIPFQMLLRGANAVGYTNYPDNVVF
KFCEVAKENGMDIFRVFDSLNYLPNLLLGMEAAGSAGGVVEAAISYTGDVSDPSRTKYSL
QYYMGLAEELVRAGTHILCIKDMAGLLKPTACTMLVSSLRDRFPDLPLHIHTHDTSGAGV
AAMLACAHAGADVVDVAADSMSGMTSQPSMGALVACTRGTPLDTGVPLERVFDYSEYWEG
ARGLYAAFDCTATMKSGNSDVYENEIPGGQYTNLHFQAHSMGLGSKFKEVKKAYVEANQM
LGDLIKVTPSSKIVGDLAQFMVQNGLTRAEAEAQAEELSFPRSVVEFLQGYIGIPHGGFP
EPLRSKVLKDLPRVEGRPGASLPPLDLQALEKELTERHGEEVTPEDVLSAAMYPDVFAHF
KDFTATFGPLDSLNTRLFLQGPKIAEEFEVELERGKTLHIKALAISDLNRAGQRQVFFEL
NGQLRSILVKDTQAMKEMHFHPKALKDVKGQIGAPMPGKVIDIKVAAGAKVTKGQPLCVL
SAMKMETVVTSPVEGTVRKVHVTKDMTLEGDDLILEIE
Enzyme 2 Number of Residues 1178
Enzyme 2 Molecular Weight 129696.5
Enzyme 2 Theoretical pI 6.83
Enzyme 2 GO Classification
Function
Process
Component
Enzyme 2 General Function Involved in ATP binding
Enzyme 2 Specific Function Pyruvate carboxylase catalyzes a 2-step reaction, involving the ATP-dependent carboxylation of the covalently attached biotin in the first step and the transfer of the carboxyl group to pyruvate in the second. Catalyzes in a tissue specific manner, the initial reactions of glucose (liver, kidney) and lipid (adipose tissue, liver, brain) synthesis from pyruvate
Enzyme 2 Pathways
  • Carbohydrate biosynthesis
  • gluconeogenesis
Enzyme 2 Reactions Not Available
Enzyme 2 Pfam Domain Function
Enzyme 2 Signals
  • None
Enzyme 2 Transmembrane Regions
  • None
Enzyme 2 Essentiality Not Available
Enzyme 2 GenBank ID Protein 28200301 Link Image
Enzyme 2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID Q29RK2 Link Image
Enzyme 2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name PYC_BOVIN Link Image
Enzyme 2 PDB ID Not Available
Enzyme 2 Cellular Location Not Available
Enzyme 2 Gene Sequence >3537 bp
ATGCTGAAGTTTCAGACTGTCCGGGGGAGCCTGAGGCTCCTGGCTATCCGCCGGACCTCC
ACCGCAACCGCTGCCTCTCCCAATGTCCGGCGCCTGGAGTACAAGCCCATCAAGAAGGTC
ATGGTGGCCAACAGAGGCGAGATCGCCATCCGTGTGTTCCGGGCCTGCACGGAGCTGGGC
ATCCGCACGGTGGCTGTCTACTCGGAGCAGGACACGGGCCAAATGCACCGACAGAAAGCT
GACGAAGCCTACCTCATCGGCCGGGGTCTTGCCCCGGTGCAGGCCTATCTGCACATTCCA
GACATCATTAAGGTCGCCAAGGAGAACAACGTGGACGCTGTGCACCCGGGCTACGGGTTC
CTGTCGGAGCGGGCCGACTTTGCCCAGGCCTGCCAGGATGCTGGGGTCCGGTTCATTGGG
CCAAGCCCCGAGGTGGTCCGCAAGATAGGTGACAAGGTGGAGGCCCGGACCATCGCCATC
GCCGCAGATGTGCCCGTGGTGCCCGGCACGAATGCCCCCATCACTTCCCTGCACGAGGCC
CACGAGTTCTCCAACACCTACGGCTTCCCCATCATCTTCAAGGCCGCCTACGGGGGCGGG
GGCCGCGGCATGAGGGTCGTGCACAGCTACGAGGAGCTGGAGGAGAACTACACCCGGGCC
TACTCGGAGGCTCTGGCCGCCTTCGGGAACGGGGCGCTGTTCGTGGAGAAGTTCATCGAG
AAGCCACGCCACATCGAGGTGCAGATCCTGGGGGACCAGTACGGGAACATCCTTCACCTC
TACGAGCGGGACTGCTCCATCCAGCGGCGGCACCAGAAAGTGGTGGAGATCGCCCCGGCT
GCCCACTTGGACCCCCAGCTGCGCACCCGGCTCACTAGCGACTCCGTCAAGCTTGCAAAG
CAGGTGGGCTACGAGAACGCGGGCACCGTGGAGTTCCTGGTGGACAGGCACGGCAAGCAC
TACTTCATCGAGGTCAACTCGCGCCTGCAGGTGGAGCACACGGTGACCGAGGAGATCACA
GATGTGGACCTGGTCCACGCCCAGATCCACGTGGCCGAGGGCCGGAGCCTGCCTGACCTG
GGCCTCCGGCAGGAGAACATCCGCATCAACGGCTGTGCCATCCAGTGCCGGGTTACCACC
GAGGACCCTGCGCGCAGCTTCCAGCCCGACACCGGCCGCATCGAGGTGTTCCGGAGCGGG
GAGGGCATGGGCATCCGCCTGGACAACGCCTCTGCCTTCCAAGGCGCCGTCATCTCCCCC
CACTACGACTCCCTGCTGGTCAAGGTCATCGCTCACGGCAAGGACCACCCCACGGACGCC
ACCAAGATGAGCAGAGCCCTGGCCGAGTTCCGAGTCCGAGGCGTGAAGACCAACATCCCC
TTCCTGCAGAACGTGCTCAACAACCAGCAGTTCCTGGCAGGCACCGTGGACACGCAGTTC
ATCGACGAGAACCCAGAGCTGTTCCAGCTGCGGCCCGCACAGAACCGGGCCCAGAAGCTG
CTGCACTACCTCGGACACGTCATGGTGAATGGCCCAACTACTCCGATCCCCGTCAAGGCC
AGCCCCAGCCCCACGGACCCCATCGTCCCTGTGGTGCCCATAGGCCCACCCCCAACGGGT
TTCAGAGACATCCTGCTACGGGAGGGGCCCGAGGGCTTTGCTCGAGCGGTGCGGAACCAT
GAGGGGCTGCTGCTGATGGACACGACCTTCAGGGACGCCCACCAGTCACTGCTGGCCACT
CGAGTGCGCACCCACGATCTCAAAAAGATCTCCCCCTATGTTGCCCACAGCTTCAACAAA
CTCTTCAGCATAGAGAACTGGGGAGGAGCCACCTTTGACGTCGCCATGCGCTTCCTGTAC
GAGTGCCCCTGGCGACGGCTGCAGGAGCTCCGGGAGCTCGTCCCCAACATCCCATTCCAG
ATGCTGCTGCGGGGGGCCAACGCCGTGGGCTACACCAACTACCCCGACAATGTGGTCTTC
AAGTTCTGCGAGGTGGCCAAGGAGAATGGCATGGACATCTTCCGGGTCTTTGACTCCCTC
AACTACCTGCCCAACCTGCTGCTGGGCATGGAGGCGGCGGGCAGTGCTGGTGGCGTGGTG
GAGGCCGCCATCTCCTACACGGGTGACGTGTCCGACCCCAGCCGCACCAAGTACTCGCTG
CAGTACTACATGGGCTTGGCCGAGGAGCTGGTGCGAGCCGGCACCCACATCCTGTGCATC
AAGGACATGGCTGGGCTGCTGAAGCCTACGGCCTGCACCATGCTGGTCAGCTCCCTCCGG
GACCGCTTCCCTGACCTCCCGCTGCACATCCACACCCACGACACGTCAGGGGCGGGCGTG
GCAGCCATGCTGGCCTGTGCTCACGCAGGGGCTGACGTGGTGGATGTGGCGGCTGACTCC
ATGTCTGGAATGACATCACAGCCCAGCATGGGGGCCCTGGTGGCCTGTACCCGAGGGACG
CCCCTGGACACAGGCGTGCCCCTGGAGCGTGTGTTCGACTACAGCGAGTACTGGGAGGGG
GCCCGGGGGCTGTACGCGGCCTTTGACTGCACGGCCACCATGAAGTCTGGCAACTCGGAC
GTGTATGAGAACGAGATCCCAGGGGGCCAGTACACCAACCTGCACTTCCAGGCGCACAGC
ATGGGGCTCGGCTCCAAGTTCAAGGAGGTCAAGAAGGCCTACGTGGAGGCCAACCAGATG
CTGGGCGACCTCATCAAGGTGACGCCCTCCTCCAAGATCGTGGGGGACCTGGCCCAGTTC
ATGGTGCAGAACGGGCTGACCCGAGCTGAGGCCGAAGCGCAGGCAGAGGAGCTGTCCTTC
CCCCGCTCGGTGGTGGAGTTCCTGCAGGGCTACATCGGCATCCCCCACGGGGGCTTCCCA
GAGCCCCTTCGCTCCAAGGTGCTGAAAGACCTGCCGAGGGTGGAGGGCCGGCCAGGAGCC
TCCCTCCCACCCCTGGACCTGCAGGCGCTGGAGAAGGAGCTGACGGAACGGCACGGGGAG
GAGGTGACCCCGGAGGACGTGCTCTCAGCCGCCATGTACCCCGACGTCTTTGCCCACTTC
AAGGACTTCACTGCCACCTTCGGCCCCCTGGACAGCCTCAATACGCGCCTCTTCCTGCAG
GGACCCAAGATTGCAGAGGAGTTTGAGGTGGAGCTGGAGCGAGGCAAGACGCTGCACATC
AAAGCCTTGGCCATAAGTGACCTCAACCGGGCGGGCCAGAGGCAGGTCTTCTTCGAGCTC
AACGGACAGCTGCGGTCCATCCTGGTCAAGGACACCCAGGCCATGAAGGAGATGCACTTC
CACCCCAAGGCCCTGAAGGACGTCAAGGGCCAGATTGGGGCACCCATGCCCGGGAAGGTG
ATAGACATCAAGGTGGCAGCAGGGGCCAAGGTGACCAAGGGCCAACCCCTGTGTGTGCTC
AGCGCCATGAAGATGGAGACTGTAGTGACCTCGCCCGTGGAGGGCACTGTCCGCAAGGTC
CACGTGACTAAGGACATGACGCTGGAGGGTGACGACCTCATCCTGGAGATCGAGTGA
Enzyme 2 GenBank Gene ID AY185595 Link Image
Enzyme 2 GeneCard ID PC Link Image
Enzyme 2 GenAtlas ID Not Available
Enzyme 2 HGNC ID Not Available
Enzyme 2 Chromosome Location Chromosome:1
Enzyme 2 Locus 11q13.4-q13.5
Enzyme 2 SNPs SNPJam Report Link Image
Enzyme 2 General References
  1. [PubMed Link Image]
Enzyme 2 Metabolite References Not Available
Enzyme 3 [top]
Enzyme 3 ID 822
Enzyme 3 Name Pyruvate carboxylase
Enzyme 3 Synonyms Not Available
Enzyme 3 Gene Name Not Available
Enzyme 3 Protein Sequence >Pyruvate carboxylase
MLKFQTVRGSLRLLAIRRTSTATAASPNVRRLEYKPIKKVMVANRGEIAIRVFRACTELG
IRTVAVYSEQDTGQMHRQKADEAYLIGRGLAPVQAYLHIPDIIKVAKENNVDAVHPGYGF
LSERADFAQACQDAGVRFIGPSPEVVR
Enzyme 3 Number of Residues 147
Enzyme 3 Molecular Weight 16308.7
Enzyme 3 Theoretical pI 10.34
Enzyme 3 GO Classification
Function
Process
Component
Enzyme 3 General Function Involved in ATP binding
Enzyme 3 Specific Function Not Available
Enzyme 3 Pathways Not Available
Enzyme 3 Reactions Not Available
Enzyme 3 Pfam Domain Function
Enzyme 3 Signals
  • None
Enzyme 3 Transmembrane Regions
  • None
Enzyme 3 Essentiality Not Available
Enzyme 3 GenBank ID Protein 28200303 Link Image
Enzyme 3 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID Q861T5 Link Image
Enzyme 3 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name Q861T5_BOVIN Link Image
Enzyme 3 PDB ID Not Available
Enzyme 3 Cellular Location Not Available
Enzyme 3 Gene Sequence Not Available
Enzyme 3 GenBank Gene ID AY185596 Link Image
Enzyme 3 GeneCard ID Not Available
Enzyme 3 GenAtlas ID Not Available
Enzyme 3 HGNC ID Not Available
Enzyme 3 Chromosome Location Not Available
Enzyme 3 Locus Not Available
Enzyme 3 SNPs SNPJam Report Link Image
Enzyme 3 General References
  1. [PubMed Link Image]
Enzyme 3 Metabolite References Not Available
Enzyme 4 [top]
Enzyme 4 ID 2007
Enzyme 4 Name PCCA protein
Enzyme 4 Synonyms Not Available
Enzyme 4 Gene Name PCCA
Enzyme 4 Protein Sequence >PCCA protein
MAGFWTGAAALATAGRRGRRWPKLLMRSVALWTVKHVPHYSRRYLVVSRTLCSAGYDSNE
KTFDKILIANRGEIACRVIKTCKKMGIKTVAIHSDVDASSVHVKMADEAVCVGPAPTSKS
YLNMNAIMDAVRSTRAQAVHPGYGFLSENKEFAKRLAAEDVIFIGPDTHAIQAMGDKIES
KLLAKKAKVNTIPGFDGVVKDADEAVRIAREIGYPVMIKASAGGGGKGMRIAWDDEETRD
GFRFSSQEAASSFGDDRLLIEKFIDNPRHIEIQVLGDKHGNALWLNERECSIQRRNQKVV
EEAPSIFLDSETRRAMGEQAVALAKAVNYSSAGTVEFLVDSKKNFYFLEMNTRLQVEHPV
TECITGLDLVQEMIRVAKGYPLRHKQADIPINGWAVECRVYAEDPYKSFGLPSVGRLSQY
EEPIHLPGVRVDSGIQPGSDISIYYDPMISKLITYGSDRTEALKRMEDALDSYVIRGVTH
NIALLREVIINSRFIEGDINTKFLSDVYPDGFKGHPLTETERNQFLAVASSLFVASQLRA
QHFQDHESSRVPIVKPQVASWELSVKLHDEIHTVVVSSSGPTFSHEPQKLLHSYMVEVDG
SKLNVTSTWNLASPLLSVNVDGTQRTIQCLSREAGGNMSIQFLGTVYKVRILTKLAAELN
KFMLEKAAEDTSSILRSPMPGVVVAISVKPGDLVAEGQEICVIEAMKMQNSMTAGKTGKV
KSVHCKAGDTVGEGDLLVELE
Enzyme 4 Number of Residues 741
Enzyme 4 Molecular Weight 81716.9
Enzyme 4 Theoretical pI 7.47
Enzyme 4 GO Classification
Function
Process
Component
Enzyme 4 General Function Involved in ATP binding
Enzyme 4 Specific Function Not Available
Enzyme 4 Pathways Not Available
Enzyme 4 Reactions Not Available
Enzyme 4 Pfam Domain Function
Enzyme 4 Signals
  • None
Enzyme 4 Transmembrane Regions
  • None
Enzyme 4 Essentiality Not Available
Enzyme 4 GenBank ID Protein 133778161 Link Image
Enzyme 4 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID A4FV90 Link Image
Enzyme 4 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name A4FV90_BOVIN Link Image
Enzyme 4 PDB ID Not Available
Enzyme 4 Cellular Location Not Available
Enzyme 4 Gene Sequence >2226 bp
ATGGCGGGGTTCTGGACTGGGGCGGCGGCGCTGGCCACCGCGGGACGGCGCGGACGGCGG
TGGCCGAAGCTTTTGATGCGGAGCGTGGCGCTGTGGACCGTGAAGCATGTTCCACATTAT
TCAAGACGGTACTTAGTGGTGTCTCGTACTCTCTGTTCAGCTGGATATGATTCTAATGAA
AAAACTTTTGATAAAATTCTTATTGCTAATAGAGGAGAAATTGCGTGTCGGGTTATTAAA
ACTTGCAAGAAGATGGGCATTAAGACGGTTGCCATCCACAGTGATGTCGATGCTAGTTCT
GTTCACGTGAAGATGGCGGACGAGGCTGTCTGCGTCGGCCCAGCTCCCACCAGTAAGAGC
TACCTCAACATGAATGCCATCATGGACGCCGTCAGGAGCACCAGGGCCCAAGCTGTACAT
CCAGGTTATGGATTTCTCTCAGAAAACAAAGAATTTGCCAAACGTTTGGCAGCAGAAGAT
GTCATTTTCATTGGACCTGATACACATGCTATTCAAGCCATGGGTGACAAGATTGAAAGC
AAATTATTAGCTAAGAAAGCAAAGGTTAACACAATCCCTGGCTTTGATGGAGTGGTCAAG
GATGCAGATGAAGCTGTCAGAATTGCAAGGGAAATTGGCTACCCTGTCATGATCAAGGCC
TCAGCAGGCGGTGGTGGGAAGGGCATGCGGATCGCTTGGGATGATGAAGAGACCAGGGAT
GGTTTTCGGTTTTCATCTCAAGAAGCTGCTTCTAGTTTTGGTGATGATAGGCTACTAATA
GAAAAATTTATTGATAACCCCCGTCATATAGAAATCCAGGTTTTAGGTGATAAACATGGG
AATGCCTTGTGGCTCAATGAAAGAGAGTGCTCAATTCAGAGAAGAAATCAGAAAGTGGTG
GAGGAAGCACCAAGCATTTTTCTAGATTCTGAGACGCGAAGAGCAATGGGAGAACAAGCC
GTAGCCCTTGCCAAAGCAGTGAATTATTCTTCTGCTGGAACCGTAGAATTCCTTGTGGAC
TCAAAGAAGAATTTTTATTTCTTGGAAATGAACACGAGACTCCAGGTTGAGCATCCCGTC
ACAGAATGCATCACTGGCCTGGACCTGGTCCAAGAAATGATACGTGTTGCCAAGGGTTAC
CCTCTCAGGCACAAACAAGCCGATATTCCCATCAACGGCTGGGCGGTCGAATGTCGAGTT
TATGCCGAGGACCCCTACAAGTCTTTTGGTTTGCCGTCTGTTGGGAGATTGTCTCAGTAT
GAAGAACCAATACATCTACCTGGTGTCCGAGTTGACAGCGGCATTCAACCAGGAAGTGAT
ATTAGCATTTATTATGATCCGATGATCTCGAAACTCATCACATATGGTTCTGATAGAACA
GAAGCACTGAAGAGAATGGAAGATGCCCTGGATAGTTATGTTATTCGAGGTGTTACACAT
AATATCGCATTGCTTCGAGAGGTGATAATCAACTCACGCTTTATAGAAGGAGACATCAAC
ACTAAATTTCTTTCTGATGTATATCCAGATGGCTTTAAAGGACACCCGTTAACAGAGACT
GAGAGAAACCAGTTCCTGGCAGTAGCGTCATCCTTGTTTGTGGCATCCCAATTAAGAGCA
CAGCATTTTCAAGACCATGAAAGTTCAAGAGTGCCTATTGTAAAACCACAAGTGGCTAGC
TGGGAGCTCTCAGTGAAACTGCATGACGAAATTCATACTGTCGTAGTATCCAGCAGTGGG
CCAACATTCTCCCATGAACCGCAGAAGCTGCTACATAGTTACATGGTGGAAGTTGATGGG
TCGAAACTAAATGTGACCAGCACGTGGAACCTGGCTTCACCCTTGTTGTCTGTCAACGTT
GATGGCACTCAGAGGACGATACAGTGTCTTTCTCGAGAAGCAGGGGGCAACATGAGCATT
CAGTTTCTCGGCACAGTGTACAAGGTGCGTATCCTCACCAAACTCGCCGCAGAGTTAAAC
AAATTTATGCTGGAAAAAGCTGCCGAGGACACAAGCAGCATTCTGCGCTCCCCAATGCCT
GGCGTGGTGGTGGCCATCTCTGTCAAGCCCGGGGACCTGGTAGCAGAAGGTCAGGAAATC
TGTGTGATTGAAGCCATGAAGATGCAGAACAGTATGACGGCCGGGAAGACTGGCAAGGTG
AAATCGGTACATTGTAAAGCTGGAGACACAGTTGGAGAAGGAGACCTGCTCGTGGAACTG
GAATGA
Enzyme 4 GenBank Gene ID BC123876 Link Image
Enzyme 4 GeneCard ID PCCA Link Image
Enzyme 4 GenAtlas ID Not Available
Enzyme 4 HGNC ID Not Available
Enzyme 4 Chromosome Location Chromosome:1
Enzyme 4 Locus 13q32
Enzyme 4 SNPs SNPJam Report Link Image
Enzyme 4 General References Not Available
Enzyme 4 Metabolite References Not Available
Enzyme 5 [top]
Enzyme 5 ID 2008
Enzyme 5 Name Acetyl-CoA carboxylase, type beta
Enzyme 5 Synonyms Not Available
Enzyme 5 Gene Name acacb
Enzyme 5 Protein Sequence >Acetyl-CoA carboxylase, type beta
ANVELIVDIAKRIPVQAVWAGWGHASENPKLPELLRKHEIAFLGPPSEAMWALGDKIAST
IVAQTLQIPTLPWNGSGLTVEWAEHSLQEGQRVSIPESVYNNGCVKDVDEGLEAAEKIGF
PLMIKASEGGGGKGIRKAETAEDFPILFRQVQSETPGSPVFLMKLAQRARHLEVQILADQ
YGNAVSLFGRDCSIQRRHQKIIEEAPATIATPAVFEFMEQCAVRLAKTVGYVSAGTVEYL
YSQDGSFHFLELNPRLQVEHPCTEMIADVNLPAAQLQIAMGVPLHRLKDIRLLYGESPWG
VTPISFETPSNPPIPRGHVIAARITSENPDEGFKPSSGTVQELNFRSSKNVWGYFSVAAT
GGLHEFADSQFGHCFSWGENREEAIS
Enzyme 5 Number of Residues 386
Enzyme 5 Molecular Weight 42348.7
Enzyme 5 Theoretical pI 5.28
Enzyme 5 GO Classification
Function
Process
Component
Enzyme 5 General Function Lipid transport and metabolism
Enzyme 5 Specific Function Not Available
Enzyme 5 Pathways Not Available
Enzyme 5 Reactions Not Available
Enzyme 5 Pfam Domain Function
Enzyme 5 Signals
  • None
Enzyme 5 Transmembrane Regions
  • None
Enzyme 5 Essentiality Not Available
Enzyme 5 GenBank ID Protein 63092044 Link Image
Enzyme 5 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID Q50I03 Link Image
Enzyme 5 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name Q50I03_BOVIN Link Image
Enzyme 5 PDB ID Not Available
Enzyme 5 Cellular Location Not Available
Enzyme 5 Gene Sequence Not Available
Enzyme 5 GenBank Gene ID AJ966319 Link Image
Enzyme 5 GeneCard ID acacb Link Image
Enzyme 5 GenAtlas ID Not Available
Enzyme 5 HGNC ID Not Available
Enzyme 5 Chromosome Location Chromosome:1
Enzyme 5 Locus 12q24.11
Enzyme 5 SNPs SNPJam Report Link Image
Enzyme 5 General References Not Available
Enzyme 5 Metabolite References Not Available
Enzyme 6 [top]
Enzyme 6 ID 2009
Enzyme 6 Name Acetyl-CoA carboxylase, type beta
Enzyme 6 Synonyms Not Available
Enzyme 6 Gene Name acacb
Enzyme 6 Protein Sequence >Acetyl-CoA carboxylase, type beta
KRQLMTNFILGSFDDNSSDEDAGAALFRQSSRKGSRASLGTLSLETAHAAGETETCAPVI
RPSMSGLHLARRGREQKKVDLHRDFTVASPAEFVTRFGGHLVIEKVLIANNGIAAVKCMR
SIRRWAYEMFRNERAIRFVVMVTPEDLKANAEYIKMADQYVPVPGGPNNNNYANVELIVD
IAKRIPVQAVWAGWGHASENPKLPELLRKHEIA
Enzyme 6 Number of Residues 213
Enzyme 6 Molecular Weight 23668.9
Enzyme 6 Theoretical pI 9.75
Enzyme 6 GO Classification
Function
Process
Component
Enzyme 6 General Function Lipid transport and metabolism
Enzyme 6 Specific Function Not Available
Enzyme 6 Pathways Not Available
Enzyme 6 Reactions Not Available
Enzyme 6 Pfam Domain Function
Enzyme 6 Signals
  • None
Enzyme 6 Transmembrane Regions
  • None
Enzyme 6 Essentiality Not Available
Enzyme 6 GenBank ID Protein 63092042 Link Image
Enzyme 6 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID Q50I04 Link Image
Enzyme 6 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name Q50I04_BOVIN Link Image
Enzyme 6 PDB ID Not Available
Enzyme 6 Cellular Location Not Available
Enzyme 6 Gene Sequence Not Available
Enzyme 6 GenBank Gene ID AJ966318 Link Image
Enzyme 6 GeneCard ID acacb Link Image
Enzyme 6 GenAtlas ID Not Available
Enzyme 6 HGNC ID Not Available
Enzyme 6 Chromosome Location Chromosome:1
Enzyme 6 Locus 12q24.11
Enzyme 6 SNPs SNPJam Report Link Image
Enzyme 6 General References Not Available
Enzyme 6 Metabolite References Not Available